PROBIOTICS

Probiotics are defined as “live microorganisms’ which when administered in adequate amount confer health benefits to the host. Alternatively, probiotics have been defined as live microbial feed supplements that beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance.

Probiotics are used to improve the health of both animals and humans through the modulation of the intestinal microbiota.

  • Are microorganisms

    Although most commercial probiotics are lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, they can be other microbes and do not need to be bacteria.
  • Need to be alive

    When administered; while it may be desirable that they are alive in the gastrointestinal tract, it is not required.
  • Need to be administered

    This does not imply they must be eaten; other routes of administration are possible.
  • In sufficient amounts

    At the end of shelf life, there are still at least as many as viable microbes in the product as were used in a clinical study.
  • Need to have a health benefit

    This benefit should be shown in the target host population


PROPERTIES ESSENTIAL FOR EFFECTIVE AND SUCCESSFUL PROBIOTICS

  • It is of utmost importance that the probiotic strain survives the site where it is presumed to be active.
  • For maximum activity, the strain should be able to proliferate and colonize at the specific location.
  • It should be tolerated by host immune system.
  • It should not be pathogenic, allergic or mutagenic/carcinogenic.
  • Probiotics for humans should have ‘generally regarded as safe’ status, with a proven low risk of inducing or being associated with the etiology of disease.
  • It must be able to survive and grow in the in vivo conditions of the desired site of administration, and thus must be able to tolerate low pH and high concentration of both conjugated and deconjugated bile acids.

PROSPECTIVE HEALTH ATTRIBUTES OF PROBIOTICS


Immune Response

Lactose Metabolism

Food Digestion

Diabetes

Parasitic infections

Constipation

Ulcers

B Vitamins

Cholesterol Normaliztaion

Oral Health

Reduction in Blood Pressure

Urinary Tract and Upper respiratory Tract infection

Antioxidative activity

Coronary Heart Disease



BIFIDOBACTERIUM SPECIES

Bifidobacterium represents a genus within the phylum Actinobacteria which is one of the major phyla in...
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LACTOBACILLUS SPECIES

Bacteria currently classified in the genus Lactobacillus are a paraphyletic group of gram-positive..
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BACILLUS SPECIES

Bacillus signifies a Gram-positive, rod shaped, spore-forming, aerobic or facultative anaerobic bacterium...
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SACCHAROMYCES BOULARDII

Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb) is a nonpathogenic yeast. Saccharomyces boulardii has a unique and specific..
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STREPTOCOCCUS THERMOPHILUS

The name Streptococcus is derived from the Greek word which means “twisted berry” it is seen under the...
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PEDIOCOCCUS ACIDILACTICI

Pediococcus acidilactici is an acid and bile tolerant probiotic strain that secretes a potent...
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CLOSTRIDIUM BUTYRICUM

Clostridium butyricum, a strictly anaerobic spore-forming bacillus, is a common human and..
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ASPERGILLUS ORYZAE

Apergillusoryzae is an aerobic filamentous fungus and belongs to the Aspergillus...
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ENTEROCOCCUS

Enterococci are lactic acid bacteria (LAB) comprising both pathogenic and commensal..
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LEUCONOSTOC MESENTEROIDES

Leuconostoc species are epiphytic bacteria that are wide spread in the natural environment...
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SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE

Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae) is a unicellular fungus, possessing a nuclear genomic...
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